Prostate cancer can sometimes be associated with known risk factors for the disease. Many risk factors are modifiable though not all can be avoided. Among those factors that appear to aid in prevention are hormone medications, diet adjustment and chemoprevention.
Studies are underway to discover the role of certain drugs, such as finasteride, that reduce the amount of male hormone as preventive agents for prostate cancer.
A diet high in fat, especially animal fat, may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Increased dietary intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer in some studies.
Chemoprevention is the use of specific natural or man-made drugs, vitamins, or other agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent cancer growth. Several agents, including difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), isoflavonoids, selenium, vitamins D and E, and lycopene have shown potential benefit in studies. Further studies are needed to confirm this.